Disrupting Class: A Reflection on Transforming Learning

VoiceThreadThis is a collaborative VoiceThread created in response to this article:
Disrupting Class: Student-Centric Education Is the Future
[I made my comments directly in the VoiceThread but wanted to put them here as well.]

This article has some very persuasive arguments, if not downright discouraging, about the state of our current educational landscape. As someone in this class mentioned in a previous discussion, and like many other similar articles, it uses scare tactics to make its point. It calls for a complete reform of learning, of education, of technology integration. I can’t debunk its persuasive arguments, and even agree with many of them. Yet, I wonder if there is a better way, something a little more balanced, a little more realistic. Or is that what vision is? More of a dream than reality?

I agree here when it says that the key to transforming technology is how it’s implemented, and here — that simply investing in expensive technology devices or software isn’t enough to move student learning forward. So what is the answer? I believe that while it’s complicated, it’s also possible — and it’s an effort we must continually support and fight for.

We need to use technology in strategic, measured, planned ways that allows students to learn the way they need to learn. We need to reach them on their terms and speak their language, which almost always involves some sort of social media format. We need to not be afraid to take risks, to try something new, to fail miserably and to try again. We need teachers that are willing to think outside the box, but to also be there for their students, both in a traditional sense and a digital one.

Maybe a complete transformation is needed, maybe not. Why don’t we start by doing a better job at the things we’re doing and continually looking for ways to bring our students along with us in this great world of learning.

Social Network Learning: Supporting Theory and Framework

Pull up a chair. Here is my paper for EdTech 505:

Social Network Learning: Supporting Theory and Framework

While it’s not reading for the faint of heart, it is for those interested in supporting their use of social network learning with learning theory. It certainly contributed to my personal growth and connectivist learning. Enjoy!

Personal Growth and Connectivism

My students would find it no surprise to see yet another word cloud in this reflection. I love word clouds! They are such a creative, versatile tool that can be used for fun, nonsense, and also as a writing tool like summarizing key concepts. This Tagxedo word cloud may not look like much, but let me assure you it represents hours (DAYS!), sweat, and tears. It also represents a newly grown knowledge within me, which is really what it’s about in the first place.  Specifically, this is a visual representation of my 2852-word synthesis paper draft for EdTech 504. I’ll spare you the math: that’s 8 dense, heavy, scholarly pages, not including 2.5 pages of peer-reviewed references. I don’t think I’ve ever written a paper that includes so-far 21 references. Wow.  It’s not called a synthesis paper for nothing. To synthesize is to combine, sort through, fuse, and otherwise make sense of a lot of information. I have read dozens of scholarly journals, articles, blog posts (which aren’t peer re-viewed but provide interesting context), and eBooks. I’ve scoured the APA Style Guide and become good friends again with Zotero. This is not light reading, by the way, about tools and apps. This is heavy stuff that includes words I knew little about before starting this course, words like constructivism, connectivism, taxonomy, and epistemology.  Yet, 2852 words later, I have a much better handle on the information. In fact, what was so utterly confusing and aggravating when I was in the thick of it, actually makes sense. I think I get it, at least as it pertains to my focus. Here’s the plain English: More and more teachers are using VLE social network learning sites such as  Edmodo, Schoology, Moodle, Blackboard, and Canvas. These sites provide a controlled environment where teachers and students interact, post and submit homework, give and receive feedback from their peers, and link to course resources and information. Social network learning, which by the way is distinctly different pedagogically than social networking, is like a walled-garen that helps students learn critical skills while in a safe and controlled environment. Most of us know and love social media and it is an integral part of our lives. How, then, can this desire to be connected, to be part of something greater than ourselves, translate into the classroom? Should we really require that our students completely “disconnect” when they come to school from their real lives and the tools that are integral to their very existence?  This paper supports the use of intentional, planned, purposeful social learning networks to engage students in the classroom. It attempts to “define social network learning and its theoretical connectivism foundations, and provides learning strategies that apply such pedagogy in the classroom.” Basically, it is the “why” of using social network learning strategies. I mainly look at social network learning through connectivist principles, and explore practical applications such as Virtual Learning Environments, Learning Communities, and Project-Based Learning. I explore traditional learning theories and emerging learning theories (the connectivism: theory or framework? debate) and use these to argue the critical need of using social networks in the classroom. I have long been a believer in helping students make connections, of giving them a larger audience, of equipping them with the rules of online social behavior while we have them in our reach. Now I have a basis for this belief, and I’ve emerged with an even greater commitment. Since technology has “reorganized how we live, how we communicate, and how we learn” (Siemens, 2004), shouldn’t we, as educators, be willing to help our students make some sense of it all? I believe we should.  Connectivism, at its heart, holds that rather than transferring, making, or building knowledge, connectivism is more like “growing or developing ourselves and our society in certain (connected) ways” (Downes, 2007, para. 6). As my word cloud flower proves, new knowledge has certainly grown within me. References:  Downes, S. (2007, February 3). What connectivism is. Half an Hour. Blog. Retrieved from 		http://halfanhour.blogspot.com/2007/02/what-connectivism-is.html  Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A theory for the digital age. Retrieved from 				http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htmMy students would find it no surprise to see yet another word cloud in my reflection. I love word clouds! They are such a creative, versatile tool that can be used for fun, nonsense, and also as a writing tool like summarizing key concepts. This Tagxedo word cloud may not look like much, but let me assure you it represents hours (DAYS!), sweat, and tears. It also represents a newly grown knowledge within me, which is really what it’s about in the first place.

Specifically, this is a visual representation of my 2852-word synthesis paper draft for EdTech 504. I’ll spare you the math: that’s 8 dense, heavy, scholarly pages, not including 2.5 pages of peer-reviewed references. I don’t think I’ve ever written a paper that includes so-far 21 references. Wow.

It’s not called a synthesis paper for nothing. To synthesize is to combine, sort through, fuse, and otherwise make sense of a lot of information. I have read dozens of scholarly journals, articles, blog posts (which aren’t peer re-viewed but provide interesting context), and eBooks. I’ve scoured the APA Style Guide and become good friends again with Zotero.

This is not light reading, by the way. It is heavy stuff that includes words I knew little about before starting this course, words like constructivism, connectivism, taxonomy, and epistemology.

Yet, 2852 words later, I have a much better handle on it all. In fact, what was so utterly confusing and aggravating when I was in the thick of it, actually makes sense. I think I get it, at least as it pertains to my limited focus. Here’s the plain English:

More and more teachers are using Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) social network learning sites such as  Edmodo, Schoology, Moodle, Blackboard, and Canvas. These sites provide a controlled environment where teachers and students interact, post and submit homework, give and receive feedback from their peers, and link to course resources and information. Social network learning, which by the way is distinctly different pedagogically than social networking, is like a walled-garen that helps students learn critical skills while in a safe and controlled environment.

Most of us know and love social media, and it is an integral part of our lives. How, then, can this desire to be connected, to be part of something greater than ourselves, translate into the classroom? Should we really require that our students completely “disconnect” when they come to school from their real lives and the tools that are integral to their very existence?

My paper supports the use of intentional, planned, purposeful social learning networks to engage students in the classroom. It attempts to “define social network learning and its theoretical connectivist foundations, and provides learning strategies to apply such pedagogy in the classroom.” Basically, it is the why of using social network learning strategies.

I look at social network learning through connectivist principles, and explore practical applications such as Virtual Learning Environments, Learning Communities, and Project-Based Learning. I explore traditional learning theories and emerging learning theories (theory or framework debate) and use these to argue the critical need of using social networks in the classroom.

I have long been a believer in helping students make connections, of giving them a larger audience, of equipping them with the skills that govern online social behavior while we still have them in our reach. Now I have a basis for this belief, and I’ve emerged with an even greater commitment. Since technology has “reorganized how we live, how we communicate, and how we learn” (Siemens, 2004), shouldn’t we, as educators, be willing to help our students make some sense of it all? Use it? Benefit from it?

I believe we should.

Connectivism, at its heart, holds that rather than transferring, making, or building knowledge, it is more like “growing or developing ourselves and our society in certain (connected) ways” (Downes, 2007, para. 6).

As my word cloud flower proves, new knowledge has certainly grown within me.

References:

Downes, S. (2007, February 3). What connectivism is. Half an Hour. Blog. Retrieved from    http://halfanhour.blogspot.com/2007/02/what-connectivism-is.html

Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A theory for the digital age. Retrieved from                 http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm

Connectivism: An attempted explantion

I find connectivism a most fascinating emerging theory, which is why I chose awhile back to design this Periodic Table of Connectivism for EdTech 543 Social Network Learning that incidentally was picked up and shared on various networks. I am intrigued by the debate on whether connectivism should be considered a modern-day theory or a mere framework for learning. Both sides have strong arguments, but regardless of its status, it “continues to play an important role in the development and emergence of new pedagogies” (Kop & Hill, 2008) and will become increasingly important in learning environments. Connectivism is based on constructivist principles that state learning is not acquired or gained; rather, it is distributed across a network of connections, built, and grown (Downes, 2007).

If this is indeed true, and if it is true that “technology has reorganized how we live, how we communicate, and how we learn” (Siemens, 2004), then connectivist principles should be embraced in schools rather than feared.

This year at our school teachers are discovering virtual learning environments (VLEs) such as Edmodo and Schoology. While we use Google Apps heavily, many teachers are finding that they really like the collaborative communication that VLEs provide. Students comment and give feedback, ask questions, and otherwise engage with the content and each other. This sort of connected learning is a fundamental principle of connectivism. I certainly want to include a more connectivist approach in everything I do. For example, I’m about to have the younger grades create their first eBook and then share and comment on each other’s. I anticipate that they will really like this activity because they will learn something new from a classmate and be able to comment on it.

Just because a learning theory or framework is complicated doesn’t mean teachers can’t incorporate some basic principles in their pedagogy.  While I have yet to really get a handle on connectivism, I do intend to have my students continue to reach out to each other and grow their learning.

References:

Downes, S. (2007, February 3). What connectivism is [Web log post]. Half an Hour. Retrieved from http://halfanhour.blogspot.com/2007/02/what-connectivism-is.html

Kop, R., & Hill, A. (2008). Connectivism: Learning theory of the future or vestige of the past? The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(3). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/523

Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. elearnspace. Retrieved from http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm

10 Be’s: My Digital Footprint and PLN

I have read through dozens of articles, links, blogs, and articles to formulate a strategy to guide me as I grow my Personal Learning Network (PLN) and create a positive digital footprint.

Here is the direct link to Google Docs.

Professional Development: Webinars

Last night I stayed up very late in Nepal to catch a few webinars on SimpleK12. One was a fast-paced Web 2.0 smackdown where each presenter (me included–cool!) shared his/her screen and told about a useful tool. I chose PollsEverywhere, not because it is the best polling system out there, as others provide more analytics and assessment (InfuseLearning was highlighted as well), but because it is an easy way to turn any device into student response systems. I also learned about some other great tools such as screenr for instant screencasts, Doug Edmonds YouTube music videos that teach content, and BeeClip student digital scrapbook alternative to Glogster. I asked questions on the backchannel that were later answered and left feeling enthused and full of ideas. ]

The next webinar was on Symbaloo, which I am actually teaching this week during a professional development discussion, and I gained some new ideas on how to incorporate this tool. For starters, I’m going to set the homepage of all of the laptops to my Symbaloo webmix so that students don’t waste so much time pulling up websites and to keep them on task. I didn’t realize there were so many useful webmixes already created, such as “Surprisingly Edu Apps” and “Best Education Blogs.” I will definitely be spending some time webmixing this week.

I’ve tried a few times over the years to attend a successful webinar and have always left frustrated. It was either was boring or laden with technical problems. This webinar experience has encouraged me and I will be looking for others on topics of interest.

Reflection: Epistemological beliefs and Classroom instruction

Reading through the text and articles for this module has certainly opened my eyes, though I have felt a bit overwhelmed with trying to make sense of the practical application of various theories. The hardest part of the learning theories paper was its length–or lack of it. I found it incredibly difficult to read that amount of dense material, find a common theory to focus on, and synthesize it into one page. I certainly see the value of such an assignment, painful as it was, because it ensured that I 1) read the material, 2) made sense of it, and 3) morphed it into an academic synthesis paper. I’m not certain how well I succeeded but the effort alone was a good experience.

The hardest part of studying theory, for me, is actually applying it to everyday life. When I was a young piano student, I had one teacher who spent a significant amount of time on musical theory. At the time I hated it because all I really wanted to do was play the notes. However, over time I grew to realize that the theory I had learned made me a much better player than I would have otherwise been. This same idea applies in the classroom.
I just attended my 6th-grader’s Back to School Open House. I listened to all seven of his teachers express their teaching philosophy (which I now know to call their epistemological beliefs) and how they would strive to help my son learn throughout the year. What has yet to be told, however, is how well they will align their beliefs with day to day classroom instruction.

After reading more about constructivism, particularly social constructivism, I realized my own beliefs closely align with its principles. I certainly believe that we all “build personal interpretations of the world based on individual experiences and interactions” and that learning should occur in realistic settings with tasks that are relevant to the learner’s lived experience (Ertmer & Newby, 1993, p. 63). I am not a classroom teacher, but I do have the opportunity to visit K-5 grades for technology integration activities that I design. In alignment with NETS standards, I have flexibility in what I choose to focus on. My goal is to make technology use as seamless as possible, to blend it with other experiences the students are having and make it relevant to their own lives.

This week they did word clouds. We started with spelling words, then science vocabulary they had been learning, then they created their own. Some chose to focus on family or friends, while some highlighted favorite games or sports. While I have had to lay some groundwork for these young students who are fairly new to using the laptop carts, I will give less instruction and allow them more freedom to problem solve. They are so quick to raise their hand if any little thing goes wrong, and I want them to try first to solve the problem before asking for help. I’m excited to bring in some more collaborative work and limited social media, even with the lower grades. I read an article recently on Edutopia that said, “The evolving world of Internet communication — blogs, podcasts, tags, file swapping — offers students radically new ways to research, create, and learn. But, too often, schools use computers as little more than glorified workbooks, and that’s criminal” (Smith, 2007).

There is such potential to allow students to construct their own knowledge, give them room to experiment, learn deeply, and share. The trick is applying the theory to practical daily application, and that’s where teachers need all the support they can get. I consider one of my most important jobs this year as technology integration coordinator is to help empower teachers with the resources they need to reach their students.

References
Ertmer, P.A., & Newby, T.J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing     critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement     Quarterly, 6(4), 50-72.

Smith, F. (2007). How to use social-networking technology for learning. Edutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/how-use-social-networking-technology

Social Constructivism Theory and Application

Overview
While not a new theory, constructivism has many faces and applications in today’s  classroom. Considered to be on the more radical end of the behaviorism-cognitivism-constructivism continuum, its heart is student-centered connection between a learner and that learner’s real-life experiences. Hence, there is little pure knowledge, as all learners shape such knowledge by their own life experiences. As “learning is presumed to become more meaningful and motivational when students construct designs or projects” (Jonassen & Land, 2012, p. 20), constructivists believe that learners create meaning rather than acquire it (Ertmer & Newby, 1993). Constructivism also holds that learners “build personal interpretations of the world based on individual experiences and interactions” and that learning should occur in realistic settings with tasks that are relevant to the learner’s lived experience (Ertmer & Newby, 1993, p. 63).  Social constructivism, the subject of this brief synthesis paper, goes a step further to acknowledge the social nature of knowledge and its creation in the minds of its learners (Anderson & Dron, 2011), and it includes historical, political, and cultural trends, face-to-face interactions, and reflecting groups (Au, 1998).

Contributors
Social constructivism is founded on the epistemological theories of John Dewey and Lev Vygotsky. An educational reformer ahead of his time, Dewey believed that education in its broadest sense is “social continuity of life” and that a person who is connected with others can’t perform his own learning and activities without taking into account the activities of others (Dewey, 1916, para. 5). Russian psychologist Vygotsky notes that “students may gain insights into their own lives through the application of academic knowledge” and that learning involves historical, cultural, and individual conditions (Au, 1998, p. 301).

Major Principles
Anderson and Dron (1998) list some common themes of social constructivist theories: 1) new knowledge builds upon the foundation of previous learning; 2) context shapes learners’ knowledge development; 3) learning is an active process; 4) language and other social tools help construct knowledge; 5) learners must assess their own learning; 6) learning environment is learner-centered and encourages multiple perspectives; and 7) knowledge needs real world context and application.  Peer interaction and collaboration is also essential. Authentic tasks must be anchored in meaningful contexts and engage the learner in the actual use of tools in real-world situations (Ertmer & Newby, 1993).

Application
Project Based Learning (PBL), if used wisely and well, can be an excellent means to a social constructivist end. The Buck Institute for Education (2009) lists compelling research that shows how PBL has increased achievement test scores, improved long-term retention and student integration of concepts, and instilled 21st Century skills in students. Teachers can build into each PBL unit Web 2.0 tools such as ePals, Google apps, mobile computing, or social networking sites such as Edmodo to help students connect and collaborate. Students can use technology capabilities to collaboratively construct, share, and represent what they have learned (Jonassen & Land, 2012, p. 20). The result is smarter, better prepared students, who have integrated their learning inside the classroom with their real-life experiences everywhere else.

References
Anderson,T.,& Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. The     International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning,12(3). Retrieved from     http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/890/1663

Au, K. H. (1998). Social constructivism and the school literacy learning of students of diverse backgrounds. Journal of Literacy Research, 30(2), 297–319. doi:    10.1080/10862969809548000

Buck Institute for Education. (2009). Does PBL work? Retrieved from http://www.bie.org/
    research/study/does_pbl_work

Dewey, J. (1916). Education as a necessity of life. In Democracy and education (1). Retrieved from http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/Projects/digitexts/dewey/d_e/    chapter01.html

Ertmer, P.A., & Newby, T.J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing     critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement     Quarterly, 6(4), 50-72.

Jonassen, D., & Land, S. (Eds.). (2012). Theoretical foundations of learning environments (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Teachers as Facilitators

I was in high school chemistry when I first heard the term “facilitate.” I adored my teacher because he was the first one who ever believed that he was to sit more on the sidelines and less front-and-center. He left the responsibility on me to learn. He taught us that most of our education had involved “spoon-feeding” and “hand-holding” and he wasn’t going to do that. I liked this new approach but wasn’t quite sure what to do with it. I felt a little bit alone, like I had just been dropped off by my mom at my first day of Kindergarten. By the end of the year, I had studied more chemistry than I knew existed, but I also gained an academic confidence I didn’t have before. I am still grateful to him for his efforts.

I am beginning an exciting new role as the K-12 Technology Integration Specialist at an international school where I live. I will not be in the classroom but will mainly support other teachers in their use of technology. I certainly see my role as a facilitator, which by Merriam-Webster’s definition is “one that helps to bring about an outcome (as learning, productivity, or communication) by providing indirect or unobtrusive assistance, guidance, or supervision.” I like that. The keywords to me are help, outcome, indirect, and guidance.

So what are the skills successful facilitators need to have?

Jennifer Tylee (1999) notes that part of facilitating student learning is to create opportunities for students to learn by assessing the students, planning the learning, implementing the plan, and evaluating the process. Teaching is still part of it and instruction is important. But facilitation is often more about the how than the what. Facilitators need to encourage students to take responsibility and delegate tasks, be warm and uplifting, promote consensus during discussion, assist in goal setting, draw conclusions, and generally guide the overall process (Embedded Learning Academy, 2009). Facilitation requires teachers to be more engaged, more involved, and more mindful of how the students are doing than they may be used to in a lecture-type setting. I foresee that some teachers will struggle with facilitating PBL more than others, depending on what type of classroom culture they have.

If given enough support and encouragement, students will develop competencies and skills they need to be successful. They will retain information longer and perform better. If they are new to Project Based Learning, they will likely need more support and scaffolding than if they have been doing PBL projects for awhile. I’m hoping to offer support and encouragement to teachers who want to do more PBL projects but don’t really know how or where to start. I am hoping a few will be motivated enough to give it a try, and will be encouraged to continue because of their successes.

References:
Embedded Learning Academy. (2009). Facilitators. Retrieved from http://www.embeddedlearningacademy.com/pde/facilitators/index.html

Tylee, J. (1999). Teacher as facilitator. Retrieved from http://www.education4skills.com/jtylee/teacher_as_facilitator.html

What is Project-Based Learning?

Used under Flickr Creative Commons Brandi Jordan http://www.flickr.com/photos/brandijordan/5616745279/sizes/n/in/photostream/

Introduction

I had a hard time recalling most of the projects I completed during my schooling. A few things came to me, like the 3D panorama of Salem, MA, or the puppet of Franz Kafka. I recall shopping for markers, poster boards, and glue sticks. The point that I don’t really remember the content behind these projects is, well, the point. They lacked meaning and relevance. While some allowed me to express creativity, they had little redeeming or lasting value.

Today, project based learning is the antithesis of what I experienced during school.  When designed well, a project based learning unit gives students an opportunity to actively participate in an authentic learning experience. Because of the level of effort, leadership, and collaboration required, students generally remember the content indefinitely. They are more motivated because they see meaning and relevancy to the world around them. They gain critical higher order 21st Century skills that will benefit them for years to come. Some projects have led to changes in the community or school environment. In short, projects “build vital workplace skills and lifelong habits of learning” (Buck Institute for Education, What is PBL? section, para 1). Isn’t that ultimately an educator’s goal?

What is Project Based Learning?

The Buck Institute for Education states that in PBL students explore a question (often called a driving question), problem, or challenge through inquiry, which helps students learn content standards and develop 21st Century skills. It is a constructivist approach to learning, where the students play an active role during the process and the teacher is more of a facilitator. Students try to answer a question, something that is relevant or has some sort of meaning for them, that is greater than the actual assignment (Curtis, 2011). PBL shares many similarities to problem based learning with a few noted exceptions. In problem based learning, students are generally given a problem, often in the form of a case study, in which to explore and solve. In project based learning, students form the question or problem and create a project to share outside of their classroom in a real-world environment. EducationWorld (2011) lists several components of both approaches to learning, noting their similarities and differences. It notes that the main difference is in their application, with project based learning focusing on the product and problem based learning focusing on the problem and the process.

Why should teachers consider incorporating PBL in their classroom?

Compelling research shows that project based learning is highly motivating for students because of its real-world scenarios and relevancy. If students feel like what they are doing matters, they are more likely to engage and enjoy. Engaging students by solving real-world problems is a great motivator (Curtis, 2011). Project based learning has been shown to cut absenteeism, engage students, boost cooperative learning skills, improve test scores and analytic abilities, and increase the likelihood of applying higher-order thinking skills (Edutopia, 2001). Students like a good challenge, especially if it is one that is authentic and will reach outside of the assignment and classroom.  Ultimately, students remember more when they are more engaged and when the content is meaningful to them.

What are the essential components of a PBL approach to instruction?

The Buck Institute for Education lists the following components to project based learning, noting that PBL is the main course, not the dessert:

  • significant content (aligns with specific curricular standards)
  • critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, and various forms of communication (essential 21st Century skills)
  • requires inquiry as part of the process of learning and creating something new (students ask the questions)
  • organized around an open-ended driving question
  • creates a need to know essential content and skills (begins with the end product and thus creates a context and reason to learn the concepts)
  • allows some degree of student voice and choice (students make choices and express their own voice)
  • includes processes for revision and reflection (often through a journal)
  • involves a public audience (reaches outside of the classroom to the community or online)

These components are all generally found in a good problem based learning unit. I especially liked the idea of reaching outside of the classroom environment. Students perform higher quality work when they know they have a real audience.

Problem based learning is an exciting approach to education that can greatly benefit students, teachers, schools, and the community as a whole.

Additional Resources:

References:

Buck Institute for Education. (n.d.) What is PBL?. Retrieved from http://www.bie.org/about/what_is_pbl

Curtis, D. (2011). Project-based learning: Real-world issues motivate students. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/project-based-learning-student-motivation

EducationWorld. (2011). Project-based and problem-based learning. Retrieved from http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/virtualwkshp/virtualwkshp002.shtml

Edutopia. (2001). PBL research summary: Studies validate project-based learning. Retrieved from  http://www.edutopia.org/project-based-learning-research

(The photo above is used under Flickr Creative Commons Brandi Jordan)